08: Applications of Accelerators, Technology Transfer and Industrial Relations
Paper Title Page
MOPLS01 Spectroscopic Correlations to Resistive Switching of Ion Beam Irradiated Films 160
SUPLH08   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • K.N. Rathod, N.A. Shah, P.S. Solanki
    Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
  • K. Asokan
    IUAC, New Delhi, India
  • K.H. Chae, J.P. Singh
    Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Advanced Analysis Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  Researchers concentrated on resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to excellent scalability, high integration density, quick switching, etc*,**. Intrinsic physical phenomenon of RRAMs is resistive switching. In this work, ion beam irradiation was used as a tool to modify resistive switching of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3/Si films. Ion irradiation induced optimal resistive switching with spectroscopic correlations has been attributed to oxygen vacancy gradient. Resistive switching ratio is estimated to be increased for the film irradiated with fluence 1×1011 ions/cm2 due to irradiation induced strain and oxygen vacancies verified by X’ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements. Strain relaxation and oxygen vacancy annihilation have been realized for higher fluence (1×1012 and 1×1013 ions/cm2) owing to local annealing effect. Present study suggests that the films understudy can be considered as emerging candidates for RRAMs.
* X.J. Zhu et al., Front. Mater. Sci. 6 (2012) 183, 206.
** D.S. Jeong et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 75 (2012) 076502:1,31.
poster icon Poster MOPLS01 [0.745 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-MOPLS01  
About • paper received ※ 26 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 November 2020       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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MOPLS06 Mu*STAR: An Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Modular Reactor 163
  • R.P. Johnson, R.J. Abrams, M.A. Cummings, T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  We present a conceptual design for a new modular, accelerator-driven subcritical reactor based on a molten salt. Mu*STAR is a reactor, that without re-design, can burn a variety of nuclear fuels, with the beam tuned to that fuel. We will discuss the elements of this system: the accelerator, the reactor, the spallation target, and the fractional distillation to separate volatile fission products. Our GAIN project with ORNL is successfully completed, with a design of the Fuel Processing Plant that will convert spent nuclear fuel into the molten-salt fuel for Mu*STAR.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-MOPLS06  
About • paper received ※ 01 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 03 September 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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MOPLS08 Error Tolerance Characterization for the HUST MeV Ultrafast Electron Diffraction System 166
  • Y. Song, K. Fan, C.-Y. Tsai
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
  Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful tool for probing atomic dynamics with a femtosecond resolution. Such a spatiotemporal resolution requires error tolerance for the UED system which includes the RF system, the laser system, the beamline elements, etc. To characterize the error tolerance of the required spatiotemporal resolution for the 1.4-cell MeV UED we are developing, we use ASTRA to simulate the UED model with errors including initial transverse beam centroid offset, RF amplitude jitter and injection phase jitter, etc. By performing simulations with different errors omitted, we can characterize the contribution of each error and thus set the tolerance for each error to obtain the required performance of UED experiment. In the end, we present the error tolerance for 10% emittance growth and 100 fs time of flight variation to maintain the required spatiotemporal resolution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-MOPLS08  
About • paper received ※ 25 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 31 August 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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MOPLS09 Engineering Design of Gallium-Nickel Target in Niobium Capsule, with a Major Focus on Determining the Thermal Properties of Gallium-Nickel Through Thermal Testing and FEA, for Irradiation at BLIP 170
  • S.K. Nayak, S. Bellavia, H. Chelminski, C.S. Cutler, D. Kim, D. Medvedev
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Funding: Funding:This abstract is authored by BSA operated under contract number DE-SC0012704. This research is supported by the U.S. DOE Isotope Program, managed by the Office of Science for Nuclear Physics.
The Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) produces several radioisotopes using a variable energy and current proton beam. The targets irradiated at BLIP are cooled by water and required to be isolated in a target capsule. During the design stage, thermal analysis of the target and cladding is carried out to determine the maximum beam power a target can handle during irradiation without destruction. In this work we designed a capsule for Gallium-Nickel (Ga 80%, Ni 20%) alloy target material and irradiated the target at the BLIP to produce the radioisotope Ge-68. Since no literature data is available on Ga4Ni’s thermal conductivity (K) and specific heat (C), measurements were carried out using thermal testing in conjunction with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Steady-state one dimensional heat conduction method was used to determine the thermal conductivity. Transient method was used to calculate the specific heat. The test setup with same methodologies can be used to assess other targets in the future. Here, we will detail these studies and discuss the improved design and fabrication of this target.
poster icon Poster MOPLS09 [0.751 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-MOPLS09  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 03 September 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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Department of Energy Isotope Program Accelerator Production of Isotopes  
  • M.A. Garland
    DOE/NP, Germantown, USA
  The United States Department of Energy’s Isotope Program (DOE IP) produces radioactive and enriched stable isotopes that are in short supply to meet the nation’s needs for research and for commercial and national security applications. DOE has more than twenty-one laboratories, many with nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, and processing facilities useful for the production of isotopes. This talk will focus on the DOE IP’s accelerator production facilities, presenting descriptions of the facilities, the isotopes they produce and their applications. An overview of the science of accelerator production methods will be also be provided. Isotope production is accomplished using proton accelerators at the Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories, electron accelerators at the Argonne National Laboratory and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and a multi-particle cyclotron at the University of Washington. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, under construction at Michigan State University, will harvest large quantities of many rare isotopes to support scientific research and applications.  
slides icon Slides TUXBA1 [13.602 MB]  
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Novel Medical Linacs for Challenging Environments  
  • D. Pistenmaa
    ICEC, Washington, DC, USA
  • M. Dosanjh
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  25 millions cancer cases are predicted in 2035, 65-70% will occur in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The current generation of linear accelerators in use in upper-income countries often do not function well in the adverse conditions in LMICs as regular interruptions to energy supply, lack of air temperature control in buildings and weak health systems between others. A new generation of environmental friendly radiotherapy accelerator that consumes little power on standby and has reduction heat production, low instantaneous power demand and local power storage would reduce reliance on the electricity grid and is in development. The talk will describe the effort made in this sense.  
slides icon Slides TUXBA2 [38.498 MB]  
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TUXBA3 Robust Thermoacoustic Range Verification for Pulsed Ion Beam Therapy 294
  • S.K. Patch
    UWM, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
  • B.M. Brahim, D. Santiago-Gonzalez
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: * Supported by the U.S D.O.E., Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Measurements were performed at ANL’s ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
Lack of online range verification generally limits application of proton therapy to cancers in the brain, spine, and to pediatric patients. Previously, thermoacoustic range verification (TARV) has been demonstrated in weakly scattering media with known sound speed [1]. At ATLAS, we demonstrated the accuracy and robustness of TARV relative to ultrasound (US) images despite acoustic heterogeneity and sound speed errors representing in vivo conditions [2]. 250 ns pulses deposited 0.26 Gy of 16 MeV protons and 2.3 Gy of 60 MeV helium ions into liquid targets. TA signals were detected by an US array that also generated US images. An air gap phantom displaced the Bragg peak by 6.5 mm and the scanner’s propagation speed setting was altered by ±5%. Weak and strong scatterers were placed between the Bragg peak and US array. Estimated Bragg peak locations were translated 6.5 mm by the air gap phantom and agreed with TRIM simulations to within 0.3 mm, even when TA emissions traveled through a strong acoustic scatterer. Soundspeed errors dilated, and acoustic heterogeneities deformed both US images and TA range estimates, confirming that TARV is accurate relative to US images.
[1] Hickling, et al, Med Phys, 45(7), 2018. (review article)
[2] S. Patch, D. Santiago, & B. Mustapha, Med Phys, 46(1), 2019.
slides icon Slides TUXBA3 [4.449 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-TUXBA3  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 31 August 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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TUXBA4 Rapid Radio-Frequency Beam Energy Modulator for Proton Therapy 298
WEPLM24   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • X. Lu, G.B. Bowden, V.A. Dolgashev, Z. Li, E.A. Nanni, A.V. Sy, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by US Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
We present the design for a rapid proton energy modulator with radio-frequency (RF) accelerator cavities. The energy modulator is designed as a multi-cell one-meter long accelerator working at 2.856 GHz. We envision that each individual accelerator cavity is powered by a 400 kW low-voltage klystron to provide an accelerating / decelerating gradient of 30 MV/m. We have performed beam dynamics simulations showing that the modulator can provide ± 30MeV of beam energy change, with an energy spread of 3 MeV for a 7 mm long (full length) proton bunch. A prototype experiment of a single cell is in preparation at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC.
slides icon Slides TUXBA4 [3.275 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-TUXBA4  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 06 September 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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WEXBB1 Adaptive Machine Learning and Automatic Tuning of Intense Electron Bunches in Particle Accelerators 609
  • A. Scheinker
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Machine learning and in particular neural networks, have been around for a very long time. In recent years, thanks to growth in computing power, neural networks have reshaped many fields of research, including self driving cars, computers playing complex video games, image identification, and even particle accelerators. In this tutorial, I will first present an introduction to machine learning for beginners and will also touch on a few aspects of adaptive control theory. I will then introduce some problems in particle accelerators and present how they have been approached utilizing machine learning techniques as well as adaptive machine learning approaches, for automatically tuning extremely short and high intensity electron bunches in free electron lasers.  
slides icon Slides WEXBB1 [58.913 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-WEXBB1  
About • paper received ※ 28 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 06 September 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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Accelerator Research and Technology Developments for Industrial Applications  
  • J.C.T. Thangaraj
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Accelerator generated particle beams have spawned a range of industrial applications such as food sterilization, wastewater treatment, cargo inspection and material processing. Some of the technologies that form the backbone of these industrial systems have emerged from the accelerator-driven science mission pursued at the national labs. Applying the technologies that are developed at national labs for science and transforming them to solve challenges is of great value that allows new industries to emerge which promotes the long-term economic interest of the society. In this talk, with inputs from other labs, I will present a broad survey of accelerator technology developments that are on-going at the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratories with the emphasis on industrial applications excluding medical applications.  
slides icon Slides WEZBB1 [39.213 MB]  
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IAEA Activities in Support of the Accelerator-Based Research and Applications  
  • A. Simon, S. Charisopoulos
    International Atomic Energy Agency, Physics Section, Div. Physical and Chemical Sciences, Vienna, Austria
  • D. Ridikas, N. Skukan, I.P. Swainson
    IAEA, Vienna, Austria
  Promotion of nuclear applications for peaceful purposes and related capacity building is among the missions of the IAEA. In this context, accelerator applications and nuclear instrumentation is one of the thematic areas, where the IAEA supports its Member States in strengthening their capabilities to adopt and benefit from the usage of accelerators. A number of activities are being implemented focusing on accelerator-based applications in multiple disciplines, e.g. materials characterization and modification, forensics, cultural heritage. This presentation will give an overview on strategies and key priority areas of the Physics Section accelerator sub-programme. The IAEA Accelerator Knowledge Portal which serves as a reference database of various type of accelerators world-wide will be also presented.
IAEA Accelerator Knowledge Portal: https://nucleus.iaea.org/sites/accelerators/
slides icon Slides WEZBB2 [93.099 MB]  
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Ultra-Compact Accelerator for Radioactive Isotope Sources Replacement, Security, NDT and Medical Applications  
  • S. Boucher, R.B. Agustsson, A. Arodzero, S.V. Kutsaev, A.Yu. Smirnov
    RadiaBeam, Los Angeles, California, USA
  Funding: This work has been partly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, under SBIR award DE-SC0015722.
The US and IAEA authorities have identified as a priority the replacement of radioactive sources with alternative technologies, due to the risk of accidents and diversion by terrorists for use in Radiological Dispersal Devices. In particular, enrichment plants that represent one of the most sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, use the Co-57 based Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) to detect the presence of UF6 gas at low pressures and to determine whether it is highly enriched. RadiaBeam has developed an inexpensive, hand-portable 180 keV Ku-band electron accelerator to replace Co-57 radionuclide source in CHEM detectors. We used an innovative split accelerating structure approacg to design the linac in two halves and to avoid labor-intensive tuning steps. In this paper, we will discuss the accelerator, including X-ray convertor and accelerating structure design. The results of RF measurements of a Ku-band split structure will also be reviewed. Other applications of Ku-band linacs include compact both backscatter- and transmission- X-ray inspection systems, as well as computed tomography for luggage and parcel screening with or without modulated energy pulses.
slides icon Slides WEZBB3 [6.774 MB]  
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High-Power Superconducting Electron Linacs for Commercial Applications  
TUPLH15   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • C.H. Boulware, S. Baurac, J. Diemer, T.L. Grimm, A.B. Schnepp
    Niowave, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Because of advances in niobium cavity resonator design and the continuing development of small helium cryocoolers, superconducting RF linacs have become a viable industrial technology for low-cost, high-power electron beams. These beams are being used to produce high-flux bremsstrahlung x-ray and neutron sources for commercial applications, particularly for the production of radioisotopes. This contribution will cover recent developments in commercial superconducting accelerator technology including thermionic cathode electron guns, superconducting cryomodules, helium cryocoolers, microwave sources, and target stations for the production of medical and industrial isotopes including molybdenum-99 and actinium-225. Machines at different stages of development span the energy range from 2-40 MeV and powers up to hundreds of kW. Connections will be made to high-power machines for high-throughput x-ray sterilization and accelerator-driven systems with electron beams.  
slides icon Slides WEZBB4 [6.352 MB]  
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Modeling and Evaluation Thermionic Energy Converters in the Space-Charge Limit  
  • N.M. Cook, J.P. Edelen, C.C. Hall, Y. Hu, M.V. Keilman, P. Moeller, R. Nagler
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • J.-L. Vay
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics under Award Number DE-SC0017162.
Thermionic energy converters (TECs) are a promising technology for modular, efficient thermoelectric energy transfer. A TEC is comprised of a narrowly-separated cathode and anode, thermionic emission at the cathode drives a current across the gap which may generate electrical power. For high operating temperatures and large gap distances, currents can meet or exceed the Child-Langmuir limit. The steady-state operation of a TEC depends upon the emission characteristics of the cathode and anode, the presence of intra-gap electrodes, and the self-consistent transport of the electrons in the gap, for which high fidelity simulations with self-consistent emission models and complex boundary interactions are required. We present results from simulations of TECs using the Warp code, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. We demonstrate newly developed tools to accurately model a broad array of devices, including mesh refinement and cut-cell techniques for improved resolution, Schottky emission from shaped emitter surfaces, and CAD I/O for grid design and optimization. These tools are employed to validate and optimize realistic device designs for future energy applications.
slides icon Slides WEZBB5 [4.415 MB]  
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Development of a 19Ne Source in Search of Chirality Flipping Interactions  
  • A. García, M.E. Higgins, N.C. Hoppis, D.W. Storm
    CENPA, Seattle, Washington, USA
  At the University of Washington we are developing a 19Ne source to be used to search for chirality-flipping interactions a signature of new physics. The 19Ne source is required to provide approx. 1010 atoms/second with low contamination such that the decays can be observed in a low pressure (~10-7 Torr) environment. The 19Ne will be produced via the 19F(p, n)19Ne reaction using a Sulfur Hexafluoride gas target and rapid cryogenic separation. The chirality-flipping interactions will be detected by measuring the beta spectrum using the Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy technique. Results will be presented.  
slides icon Slides WEZBB6 [5.136 MB]  
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WEPLM21 High-Quality Resonators for Quantum Information Systems 690
  • S.V. Kuzikov
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  • S.P. Antipov, P.V. Avrakhov, E. Gomez
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  We analyze ultra-high-quality factor resonators for quantum computer architectures. As qubit operation requires external DC fields, we started our study with a conventional closed copper cavity which naturally allows external magnetic field. In order to increase quality factor and to keep DC magnetic field control at a level less than critical field, an open SRF resonator promises much higher quality. The next step resonator is a photonic band gap (PBG) resonator. This resonator allows easy external either magnetic or electric field control. It consists of a periodic 3D set of sapphire rods assembled between two superconducting plates. The PBG resonator exploits unique properties of the crystalline sapphire. Tangent delta for sapphire in X-band is reported at 10-9 ’ 10-10 at 4 K. That is why, the Q-factor of the sapphire PBG resonator can be expected as high as 10 billions at mK temperatures which provides long relaxation times (dephasing etc.). The established PBG design implies obtaining a large Purcell factor, i.e. large ratio of quality to mode volume which is important parameter to establish strong interaction of a qubit with the cavity mode rather than RF noise.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-WEPLM21  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 01 September 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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WEPLM23 Updated Applications of Advanced Compact Accelerators 694
WEPLM22   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • M. Uesaka
    The University of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  We are working for downsizing of RF accelerators from room-size to portable and table-top sizes and applying them to industril and social uses. We have developed portable 950 keV / 3.95 MeV X-band (9.3 GHz) electron linac based X-ray/neutron sources and successfully applied to on-site nondestructive inspection of industrial and social infrastructures such as chemical reaction chambers and bridges following the radiation safety law and regulation in Japan. By using the portable 950 keV / 3.95 MeV X-band electron linac based X-ray sources for on-site actual bridge inspection, we visualize inner reinforcement iron structure. The information of of the iron states is used for the structural analysis of the a bridge in order to evaluate its residual strength and sustainability. Table-topμelectron / ion beam sources using laser dielectric accelerating techniques are under development. The beam energy is ~ 1 MeV, the beam size is ~1 micron. We aim to apply them to 3D dynamic observation of radiation-induced DNA damage / repair for basic research of radiation therapy and low dose effect.  
poster icon Poster WEPLM23 [0.778 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-WEPLM23  
About • paper received ※ 30 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 19 November 2019       issue date ※ 08 October 2019  
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SHINE: Addressing the Tc-99 Shortage with Accelerator Technology  
  • G.R. Piefer
    SHINE Medical Technologies, Monona, Wisconsin, USA
  SHINE is developing a solution to the domestic storage of Tc-99, an important radioisotope used in medical imaging. The talk will describe the uses as well as the production and distribution of Tc-99. It will then describe SHINE’s technical solution as well as some of the insights gained from starting a small company based on accelerator technology.  
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