|FRXBA4||Maximizing 2-D Beam Brightness Using the Round to Flat Beam Transformation in the Ultralow Charge Regime||986|
|SUPLM02||use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code|
Funding: This work is supported by the United States National Science Foundation award PHY-1549132 (the Center for Bright Beams)
We seek to maximize the 2-D beam brightness in an RF photoinjector operating in an ultralow charge (<1 pC) regime by implementing the FBT. Particle tracking simulations suggest that in one dimension, normalized projected emittances smaller than 5 nm can be obtained at the UCLA Pegasus facility with up to 100 fC beam charge. A tunable magnetic field is put on the cathode. Three skew quadrupoles are used to block-diagonalize the beam matrix and recover the vastly different eigenemittances as the projected emittances. Emittance measurement routines, including grid-based, pepperpot-based and quad scan routines, have been developed for on-line calculation of the 4-D beam matrix and its eigenemittances. Preliminary measurements are in agreement with simulations and indicate emittance ratios larger than 10 depending on the laser spot size on the cathode. Fine tuning the quadrupole gradients for the FBT has a significant effect on the 2-D beam brightness. We have made concrete steps toward computer minimization and machine learning optimization of the quadrupole gradients in order to remove the canonical angular momentum from the beam and achieve the target normalized projected emittances.
|Slides FRXBA4 [3.059 MB]|
|DOI •||reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2019-FRXBA4|
|About •||paper received ※ 28 August 2019 paper accepted ※ 05 December 2019 issue date ※ 08 October 2019|
|Export •||reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)|