SUPLM —  Student Poster Session-Lake Michigan   (01-Sep-19   14:00—16:00)
Paper Title Page
Beam Dynamics Effects Due to Non-Cylindrical-Symmetric RF Field at the AWA Facility  
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  • T. Xu, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • M.E. Conde, G. Ha, J.G. Power, J.H. Shao
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) is supporting an array of experiments with increasing demand on the ability to generate brighter beams. One impeding element to generate low-emittance beams comes from the non-axisymmetric nature of the RF field in the AWA linac. Deviation from the axisymmetry arises from the input couplers and generally lead to a transverse emittance dilution via a head-tail effect of the beam. Numerical tracking in a 3D model is performed with IMPACT-T to investigate the impact of these 3D effects and their possible mitigation for the case of AWA nominal round-beam operation and for the asymmetric-emittance ("flat beam") generation.  
Maximizing 2-D Beam Brightness Using the Round to Flat Beam Transformation in the Ultralow Charge Regime  
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  • F.W. Cropp V, P.E. Denham, J. Giner Navarro, E.T. Liu, P. Musumeci
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  • N. Burger, L. Phillips
    PBPL, Los Angeles, USA
  • A.L. Edelen, C. Emma
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by the United States National Science Foundation award PHY-1549132 (the Center for Bright Beams)
We seek to maximize the 2-D beam brightness in an RF photoinjector operating in an ultralow charge (<1 pC) regime by implementing the FBT. Particle tracking simulations suggest that in one dimension, normalized projected emittances smaller than 5 nm can be obtained at the UCLA Pegasus facility with up to 100 fC beam charge. A tunable magnetic field is put on the cathode. Three skew quadrupoles are used to block-diagonalize the beam matrix and recover the vastly different eigenemittances as the projected emittances. Emittance measurement routines, including grid-based, pepperpot-based and quad scan routines, have been developed for on-line calculation of the 4-D beam matrix and its eigenemittances. Preliminary measurements are in agreement with simulations and indicate emittance ratios larger than 10 depending on the laser spot size on the cathode. Fine tuning the quadrupole gradients for the FBT has a significant effect on the 2-D beam brightness. We have made concrete steps toward computer minimization and machine learning optimization of the quadrupole gradients in order to remove the canonical angular momentum from the beam and achieve the target normalized projected emittances.
slides icon Slides SUPLM02 [3.056 MB]  
Experimental Studies of Resonance Structure Dynamics With Space Charge  
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  • L. Dovlatyan, T.M. Antonsen, B.L. Beaudoin, S. Bernal, I. Haber, D.F. Sutter, G.D. Wyche
    UMD, College Park, Maryland, USA
  Funding: Funding for this project is provided by DOE-HEP award #DE-SC0010301
Space charge is one of the fundamental limitations for next generation high intensity circular accelerators. It can lead to halo growth as well as beam loss, and affect resonance structure in ways not completely understood. We employ the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), a circular 10 keV storage machine, to experimentally study the structure of betatron resonances for beams of varying degrees of space charge intensity. Experimental techniques such as tune scans and frequency maps are employed. Results are also compared to computer simulations using the WARP code.
Phase Retrieval of OAM FEL Beams Using Sequential Intensity and Edge-Diffraction Measurements  
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  • P. Liu, H. Hao, Y.K. Wu, J. Yan
    FEL/Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
  Orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams have been widely used in many fields. In the visible regime, numerous methods have been developed to generate his kind of beam, while in the X-ray and gamma-ray regime, the generation of OAM beams remains challenging. The possibility of using free electron lasers (FEL) for the high energy OAM generation has been extensively explored in recent years. To characterize the generated OAM beams, phase retrieval is a good method. Here, we present a phase retrieval algorithm for OAM beams without using any conventional optics and thus can be possibly used beyond the visible regime. This algorithm is based on free-space-propagated and edge-diffracted beam intensity profiles, which are sequentially sampled by using a CCD camera at several longitudinal locations. The dependence on the initial input phase is investigated using a set of pure OAM modes and mixed OAM modes with different mixing ratio. The phase of these modes can be successfully retrieved with a weak dependence on the choice of the initial phase.  
Multipactor Electron Cloud Analysis in a 17 GHz Standing Wave Accelerator Cavity  
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  • H. Xu, M.A. Shapiro, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  Funding: US Department of Energy High Energy Physics
Theoretical predictions of single-surface one-point multipactor modes have been confirmed in experiments with a 17 GHz standing wave single cell disk-loaded waveguide accelerator structure operated in gradient range of 45-90 MV/m. A dc-biased probe placed outside of a slit in the side wall of the structure was used to measure the internal dark current electron energy distribution. The results indicated that the electrons had kinetic energy up to about 50 eV, in agreement with our CST particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Further theoretical calculations were performed to calculate the frequency detuning introduced by the multipactor electron cloud on the cell side wall for different electron cloud thicknesses and densities. We found that the detuning (Δf/f) due to the electron cloud was small, about two orders of magnitude smaller than the reciprocal of the cavity loaded quality factor. This detuning is sufficiently small that it does not cause significant power reflection. Similar calculations were carried out for high gradient operation of accelerator structures at frequencies of 2.856 GHz and 110.0 GHz, showing similar small detuning by multipactor discharges.
Two-Energy Storage-Ring Electron Cooler for Relativistic Ion Beams  
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  • B. Dhital, J.R. Delayen, G.A. Krafft
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • J.R. Delayen, Y.S. Derbenev, D. Douglas, G.A. Krafft, F. Lin, V.S. Morozov, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  An electron beam based cooling system for the ion beam is one of the commonly used approaches. The proposed two’energy storage-ring electron cooler consists of damping and cooling sections at markedly different energies connected by an energy recovering superconducting RF structure. The parameters in the cooling and damping sections are adjusted for optimum cooling of a stored ion beam and for optimum damping of the electron beam respectively. This paper briefly describes a two cavities model along with a third cavity model to accelerate and decelerate the electron beam in two energy storage ring. Based on our assumed value of equilibrium emittance shows that these models give a bunch length of the order of cm and energy spread of the order of 〖10〗-5 in the cooling section which are required parameters for the better cooling. Numerical calculations along with elegant simulation are presented.  
Fast Two-Dimensional Calculation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Relativistic Beams  
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  • J. Tang, G. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Coherent Synchrotron Radiation(CSR) in a relavistic beam during compression can lead to longitudinal modulation of the bunch with wavelength smaller than bunch length and is regarded as one of the main sources of emittance growth in the bunch compressor. Current simulations containing CSR wake fields often utilize one-dimensional model assuming a line beam. Despite its good computation efficiency, 1D CSR model can be inaccurate in many cases because it ignores the so-called ’compression effect’. On the other hand, the existing 3D codes are often slow and have high demands on computational resources. In this paper we propose a new method for calculation of the three-dimensional CSR wakefields in relativistic beams with integrals of retarded potentials. It generalizes the 1D model and includes the transient effects at the entrance and the exit from the magnet. Within given magnetic lattice and initial beam distributions, the formalism reduces to 2D or 3D integration along the trajectory and therefore allows fast numerical calculations using 2D or 3D matrices.  
The Role of Laser Shaping in Microbunching Instability Suppression and Seeded X-Ray Free Electron Emission  
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  • J. Tang, S. Carbajo, F.-J. Decker, Z. Huang, J. Krzywiński, R.A. Lemons, W. Liu, A.A. Lutman, G. Marcus, T.J. Maxwell, S.P. Moeller, D.F. Ratner, S. Vetter
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Microbunching instability (MBI) driven by collective effects in an accelerator is known to be detrimental for the performance of X-ray free electron lasers. At the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), laser heater (LH) system was installed to suppress the microbunching instability by inducing a small amount of slice energy spread to the electron beam. The distribution of the induced energy spread greatly effects MBI suppression and can be controlled by shaping the transverse profile of the heater laser. In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental results on utilizing a Laguerre-Gaussian 01 Mode (LG01) laser at LCLS to obtain better suppression of the instability. We demonstrate experimentally that Gaussian-shaped energy distribution is induced by LG01 mode LH and final microbunching gain is better suppressed. We finally discuss the role of LH spatial shaping in soft X-ray self-seeded (SXRSS) FEL emission and demonstrate that this LH configuration is capable of generating high spectral brightness FEL pulses.  
slides icon Slides SUPLM09 [3.160 MB]  
Transverse Ion Beam Emittance Growth Due to Low Frequency Instabilities in Microwave Ion Source Plasma  
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  • C. Mallick, M. Bandyopadhyay, R. Kumar
    Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, India
  The ion source is accompanied by the generation of low frequency (LF) plasma instabilities (PI). Its signature is also visible in high current heavy ion beam required for any accelerator. These LFs affect the profile of the ion beam in transverse phase-space. These issues are investigated in detail by measuring the emittance of beam. Beam oscillations are extracted from the transverse emittance data by taking Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of it. PI frequencies are identified in the measured electromagnetic emission from the plasma, in which these frequencies appeared as sidebands around pump frequency 2.45 GHz. The PI components i.e.,ion acoustic (IA) and ion cyclotron (IC) waves are also visible in the FFT spectra. Low and high frequency oscillations in the beam are 476 kHz and ~1.3 MHz respectively. These two groups of frequencies also exist within the PI induced IA (238 - 873 kHz) and IC (1.29 - 1.3 MHz) frequency ranges. The measured emittance (rms-normalized) in horizontal and vertical phase-space varies from 0.002-0.098 𝜋 mm mrad and 0.004-0.23 𝜋 mm mrad respectively. PI induced beam oscillation is the reason behind such broad transverse emittance growth.
’S. Kumar et al.,Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 21, 093402 (2018)’
’R. D’Arcy et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 815 7(2016)’
’L. Groening et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 264802 (2014)’
slides icon Slides SUPLM10 [5.911 MB]  
Nonlinear Tune-Shift Measurements in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator  
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  • S. Szustkowski, S. Chattopadhyay
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • S. Chattopadhyay, A.L. Romanov, A. Valishev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • N. Kuklev
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  Funding: US Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, General Accelerator Research and Development (GARD) Program
The first experimental run of Fermilab’s Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring aimed at testing the concept of nonlinear integrable beam optics. In this report we present the preliminary results of the studies of a nonlinear focusing system with two invariants of motion realized with the special elliptic-potential magnet. The key measurement of this experiment was the horizontal and vertical betatron tune shift as a function of transverse amplitude. A vertical kicker strength was varied to change the betatron amplitude for several values of the nonlinear magnet strength. The turn-by-turn positions of the 100 MeV electron beam at twenty-one beam position monitors around the ring were captured and used for the analysis of phase-space trajectories.
slides icon Slides SUPLM11 [12.880 MB]  
Simulation of a Klystron Input Cavity using a Steady-State Full-Wave Solver  
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  • A.R. Gold, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  The simulation of vacuum electronic radio-frequency (RF) power sources is generally done through semi-analytical modeling approaches. These techniques are computationally efficient as they make assumptions on the source topology, such as the requirement that the electron beam travel longitudinally and interact with cylindrical modes. To simulate more general interactions, transient particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are currently required. We present here simulation results of a 5045 klystron using a newly developed steady state code which does not make assumptions on the beam configuration or geometry of the structure and resonant modes. As we solve directly for the steady-state system dynamics, this approach is computationally efficient yet, as demonstrated through comparison with experimental results, provides similar accuracy.  
Progress in Time-Resolved MeV Transmission Electron Microscopy at UCLA  
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  • P.E. Denham
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  We describe here two new enhancements developed for the time-resolved microscope at the UCLA PEGASUS Lab based on the use of a radiofrequency photoinjector as an ultrafast electron source and permanent magnet quadrupoles as electron lenses. The first enhancement is a flexible optical column design including hybrid-style stronger focusing quadrupoles, yielding a 60% magnification increase, and a collimator to improve imaging contrast. This new optical system will have the ability to switch between real-space imaging and diffraction pattern imaging with variable magnification. The second enhancement is a high-frequency (X-band) cavity downstream from the (S-band) photoinjector to reduce the beam energy spread. These enhancements are crucial for improving contrast and image quality. In addition, a pulse-wire alignment method to fiducialize the quadrupole positions to better than 20-um precision is used to reduce the aberrations induced by misalignment and achieve spatial resolution at the 20 nm-level.  
A Study of Quadrupole Error Correction in RF Photoinjectors  
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  • P.E. Denham, F.W. Cropp V, J. Giner Navarro, P. Musumeci
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  Machining errors in solenoids and radiofrequency couplers in electron guns often lead to unwanted quadrupole moments that are long in focal length and arbitrarily rotated. These moments lead to correlations in the beam distribution which can be corrected by a compensation quadrupole. It is shown here that the correlations induced by weak quadrupole moments can be exactly cancelled with a skew quadrupole corrector (SQC) placed inside a solenoid following the electron gun. The result is a block diagonalized beam matrix. Simulation is shown to agree with experiment.  
Modeling of Space-Charge Effects in the ORISS MRTOF Device for Applications to FRIB  
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  • R. Hipple
    MSU, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • S.M. Lund
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  The Oak Ridge Isotope/Isomer Spectrometer and Separator (ORISS) is an electrostatic multiply reflecting time-of-flight (MRTOF) mass separator constructed by the University Radioactive Ion Beam Consortium (UNIRIB) and Louisiana State University. The device was never fully commissioned, and was eventually shipped to Michigan State University for use at the Facility for Rare Isotopes and Beams (FRIB). The separation process is sensitive to space-charge effects due to the reflection of ions at both ends of the trap, as well as nonlinearities in the optics. In this study we apply the time-based particle-in-cell code Warp to model the effects of intense space-charge during the separation process. We find that the optics can be tuned for isochronous operation and focusing in the presence of intense space-charge to enable separation of bunches with high particle counts. This suggests the device may be effectively utilized at FRIB as a separator, spectrograph and spectrometer.  
CSR Phase Space Dilution in CBETA  
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  • W. Lou, G.H. Hoffstaetter, D. Sagan
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • C.E. Mayes
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  CBETA, the Cornell BNL ERL Test Accelerator, will be the first multi-turn Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with SRF accelerating cavities and Fixed Field Alternating gradient (FFA) beamline. While CBETA gives promise to deliver unprecedentedly high beam current with simultaneously small emittance, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) can pose detrimental effect on the beam at high bunch charges and short bunch lengths. To investigate the CSR effects on CBETA, we used the established simulation code Bmad to track a bunch with different parameters. We found that CSR causes phase space dilution, and the effect becomes more significant as the bunch charge and recirculation pass increase. Potential ways to mitigate the effect involving varying phase advances are being investigated.  
slides icon Slides SUPLM17 [7.109 MB]  
Method for a Multiple Square Well Model to Study Transverse Mode Coupling Instability  
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  • M.A. Balcewicz, Y. Hao
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • M. Blaskiewicz
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  In the high intensity limit it can become difficult to simulate intense beams sufficiently within a short time scale due to collective effects. Semi-Analytic methods such as the Square Well Model*/AirBag Square Well** (SWM/ABS) exist to estimate collective effects within a short time scale. SWM/ABS discretizes the longitudinal confining potential into a single square well enforcing linearity for the case of linear transverse optics. A method is proposed here to extend the Square Well Method multiple square wells. This method preserves linearity properties that make it easily solvable within a short time scale as well as including nonlinear effects from the longitudinal potential shape.
*M. Blaskiewicz PRSTAB 1, 044201. 1998
**A. Burov PRAB 22, 034202. 2019
Experimental Studies of Single Invariant Quasi-Integrable Nonlinear Optics at IOTA  
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  • N. Kuklev, Y.K. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • S. Nagaitsev, A.L. Romanov, A. Valishev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by National Science Foundation award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams. Fermi Research Alliance operates Fermilab under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the US Dept. of Energy.
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator is a research electron and proton storage ring recently commissioned at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology facility. Its research program is focused on testing novel techniques for improving beam stability and quality, notably the concept of non-linear integrable optics. In this paper, we report on run 1 results of experimental studies of a quasi-integrable transverse focusing system with one invariant of motion, a Henon-Heiles type system implemented with octupole magnets. Good agreement with simulations is demonstrated on key parameters of achievable tune spread, dynamic aperture, and invariant conservation. We also outline current simulation and hardware improvement efforts for run 2, planned for fall of 2019.
Analytical Expression for a N-Turn Trajectory in the Presence of Quadrupole Magnetic Errors  
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  • Y. Rodriguez Garcia, J.F. Cardona
    UNAL, Bogota D.C, Colombia
  • Y. Rodriguez Garcia
    UAN, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
  The action and phase jump method is a technique, based on the use of turn-by-turn experimental data in a circular accelerator, to find and measure local sources of magnetic errors through abrupt changes in the values of action and phase. At this moment, this method uses at least one pair of adjacent BPMs (Beam Position Monitors) to estimate the action and phase at one particular position in the accelerator. In this work, we propose a theoretical expression to describe the trajectory of a charged particle for an arbitrary number of turns when a magnetic error is present in the accelerator. This expression might help to estimate action and phase at one particular position of the accelerator using only one BPM in contrast to the current method that needs at least two BPMs.  
Generation of High-Charge Magnetized Electron Beams Consistent With JLEIC Electron Cooling Requirements  
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  • A.T. Fetterman, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • S.V. Benson, F.E. Hannon, S. Wang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • D.J. Crawford, D.R. Edstrom, P. Piot, J. Ruan
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC02-07CH11359.
The proposed Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC), currently under design, relies on electron cooling in order to achieve the desired luminosity. This includes an electron beam with >55 Mev, 3.2 nC bunches that cools hadron beams with energies up to 100 GeV. To enhance the cooling, the electron beam must be magnetized with a specific eigen-emittance partition. This paper explores the use of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility to demonstrate the generation of an electron beam with parameters consistent with those required in the JLEIC high-energy cooler. We demonstrate via simulations the generation of the required electron-beam parameters and perform a preliminary experiment to validate FAST capabilities to produce such beams.
Progress Toward a Laser Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling  
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  • A.J. Dick, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • M.B. Andorf
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling using optical frequencies which compresses the phase space of the beam by correcting the deviation of each particle’s momentum. A particle bunch passing through an undulator produces radiation which is amplified and provides the corrective energy kick. In this project, we are testing a method of amplifying synchrotron radiation (SR) for the eventual use in OSC. The SR is amplified by passing through a highly-doped Chromium:Zinc Selenide (Cr:ZnSe) crystal which is pumped by a Thulium fiber laser. The SR will be produced by one of the bending magnets of the Advanced Photon Source. The first step is to detect and measure the power of SR using a photo-diode. The gain is then determined by measuring the radiation amplified after the single-pass through the crystal. This serves as a preliminary step to investigate the performance of the amplification of beam-induced radiation fields. The planned experiment is an important step towards achieving active OSC in a proof-of-principle demonstration in IOTA.  
Space Charge Study of the Jefferson Lab Magnetized Electron Beam  
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  • S.A.K. Wijethunga, J.R. Delayen, G.A. Krafft
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • J.F. Benesch, F.E. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Magnetized electron cooling could result in high luminosity at the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC). In order to increase the cooling efficiency, a bunched electron beam with high bunch charge and high repetition rate is required. We generated magnetized electron beams with high bunch charge using a new compact DC high voltage photo-gun biased at -300 kV with alkali-antimonide photocathode and a commercial ultrafast laser. This contribution explores how magnetization affects space charge dominated beams as a function of magnetic field strength, gun high voltage, laser pulse width, and laser spot size.  
slides icon Slides SUPLM23 [12.577 MB]  
Optimization of Beam Parameters for UEM with Photo-Emission S-Band RF Gun and Alpha Magnet  
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  • H.R. Lee, P. Buaphad, I.G. Jeong, Y. Joo, Y. Kim
    University of Science and Technology of Korea (UST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • P. Buaphad, I.G. Jeong, Y. Joo, Y. Kim
    KAERI, Jeongeup-si, Republic of Korea
  • B.L. Cho
    KRISS, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • M.Y. Han, J.Y. Lee, S.H. Lee
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • H. Suk
    GIST, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
  Ultrafast Electron Microscopy (UEM) is a powerful tool to observe ultrafast dynamical processes in sample materials at the atomic level. By collaborating with KRISS and GIST, the future accelerator R&D team at KAERI has been developing a UEM facility based on a photo-emission S-band (=2856 MHz) RF gun. Recently, we have added an alpha magnet in the beamline layout of the UEM to improve beam qualities such as emittance, divergence, energy spread, and bunch length. To achieve high spatial and time resolutions, we have been optimizing those beam parameters and other machine parameters by performing numerous ASTRA and ELEGANT code simulations. In this paper, we describe our ASTRA and ELEGANT code optimizations to obtain high-quality beam parameters for the UEM facility with a photo-emission S-band RF gun and an alpha magnet.